The paper considers the process of injection of hydrate-forming gas (methane) into a snowy agglomerate (ini-tially saturated with methane). The self-similar problem statement demonstrates that if the warm gas (Te > 0 °C) is injected under a high pressure (pe ≥ p*, where the critical values are found from the initial temperature T0, pressure p0, volumetric snow saturation Si0, and permeability of snow) into the filtration zone with phase transition, this produces four characteristic zones: the nearest zone with all snow transformed into hydrate, therefore, the aggregate filled only with gas and hydrate, the two intermediate zones where gas, snow or water and hydrate are in phase equilibrium state, and the distant zone filled only with gas and snow. The obtained analytical and numerical solutions give an analysis of the influence of key input parameters like initial state of the aggregate, gas injection rate, and its temperature, on the structure and the length of four filtration zones.;The paper considers the process of injection of hydrate-forming gas (methane) into a snowy agglomerate (ini-tially saturated with methane). The self-similar problem statement demonstrates that if the warm gas (T e > 0 °C) is injected under a high pressure (p e ≥ p *, where the critical values are found from the initial temperature T 0, pressure p 0, volumetric snow saturation S i0, and permeability of snow) into the filtration zone with phase transition, this produces four characteristic zones: the nearest zone with all snow transformed into hydrate, therefore, the aggregate filled only with gas and hydrate, the two intermediate zones where gas, snow or water and hydrate are in phase equilibrium state, and the distant zone filled only with gas and snow. The obtained analytical and numerical solutions give an analysis of the influence of key input parameters like initial state of the aggregate, gas injection rate, and its temperature, on the structure and the length of four filtration zones.;The paper considers the process of injection of hydrate-forming gas (methane) into a snowy agglomerate (ini-tially saturated with methane). The self-similar problem statement demonstrates that if the warm gas (Te > 0 °C) is injected under a high pressure (pe ≥ p*, where the critical values are found from the initial temperature T0, pressure p0, volumetric snow saturation Si0, and permeability of snow) into the filtration zone with phase transition, this produces four characteristic zones: the nearest zone with all snow transformed into hydrate, therefore, the aggregate filled only with gas and hydrate, the two intermediate zones where gas, snow or water and hydrate are in phase equilibrium state, and the distant zone filled only with gas and snow. The obtained analytical and numerical solutions give an analysis of the influence of key input parameters like initial state of the aggregate, gas injection rate, and its temperature, on the structure and the length of four filtration zones.

We visualized experimentally the internal flow inside inkjet droplets of polystyrene–anisole solution during solid film formation on substrates at room temperature. The effects of contact angle and evaporation rate on the internal flow and film morphology were quantitatively investigated. The transport process during film formation was examined by measuring the relationship between internal flow and film morphology, which provided three remarkable findings. First, self-pinning and the strength of outward flow on the free surface under 2.3?Pa?s determined film morphology. The solute distribution, corresponding to rim areas in ring-like films and a convex trough in dot-like films, had already developed at self-pinning. Second, the mass fraction at self-pinning close to the contact line converged to one, regardless of the film morphology. This implies that self-pinning is independent of parameters such as the contact angle and evaporation rate. Third, at room temperature, the solutal Marangoni numbers were 20–30 times larger than the thermal ones. Thus, the outward flow on the free surface caused by the solutal Marangoni effect dominates in droplets before self-pinning. The solutal Marangoni number at self-pinning and thickness variation at the center of the film displayed a good relationship for droplets with different contact angles and evaporation rates. This suggests that film morphology can be technically controlled by solutal Marangoni number at room temperature.;We visualized experimentally the internal flow inside inkjet droplets of polystyrene–anisole solution during solid film formation on substrates at room temperature. The effects of contact angle and evaporation rate on the internal flow and film morphology were quantitatively investigated. The transport process during film formation was examined by measuring the relationship between internal flow and film morphology, which provided three remarkable findings. First, self-pinning and the strength of outward flow on the free surface under 2.3?Pa?s determined film morphology. The solute distribution, corresponding to rim areas in ring-like films and a convex trough in dot-like films, had already developed at self-pinning. Second, the mass fraction at self-pinning close to the contact line converged to one, regardless of the film morphology. This implies that self-pinning is independent of parameters such as the contact angle and evaporation rate. Third, at room temperature, the solutal Marangoni numbers were 20–30 times larger than the thermal ones. Thus, the outward flow on the free surface caused by the solutal Marangoni effect dominates in droplets before self-pinning. The solutal Marangoni number at self-pinning and thickness variation at the center of the film displayed a good relationship for droplets with different contact angles and evaporation rates. This suggests that film morphology can be technically controlled by solutal Marangoni number at room temperature.

The expedience of using the ratio of inertial β and viscous α hydraulic coefficients of a fluid flow in porous structures as the characteristic linear scale, when generalizing the experimental data on internal heat transfer in porous media, is shown. It is demonstrated that the correlation Nu = A · Pe, with both criteria based on β/α ratio, most efficiently describes the experimental data for a wide set of ordered and disordered porous structures, including sintered spheres, network materials, sintered felt and cellular foams of high porosity. The coefficient A depends on porosity and is equal to 0.004 for spheres, networks and felts, and 0.0004 for foams. For any specific case the values of α and β coefficients can be readily obtained from testing materials under consideration, control samples, or full-scale articles.;The expedience of using the ratio of inertial β and viscous α hydraulic coefficients of a fluid flow in porous structures as the characteristic linear scale, when generalizing the experimental data on internal heat transfer in porous media, is shown. It is demonstrated that the correlation Nu = A · Pe, with both criteria based on β/α ratio, most efficiently describes the experimental data for a wide set of ordered and disordered porous structures, including sintered spheres, network materials, sintered felt and cellular foams of high porosity. The coefficient A depends on porosity and is equal to 0.004 for spheres, networks and felts, and 0.0004 for foams. For any specific case the values of α and β coefficients can be readily obtained from testing materials under consideration, control samples, or full-scale articles.;The expedience of using the ratio of inertial β and viscous α hydraulic coefficients of a fluid flow in porous structures as the characteristic linear scale, when generalizing the experimental data on internal heat transfer in porous media, is shown. It is demonstrated that the correlation Nu = A · Pe, with both criteria based on β/α ratio, most efficiently describes the experimental data for a wide set of ordered and disordered porous structures, including sintered spheres, network materials, sintered felt and cellular foams of high porosity. The coefficient A depends on porosity and is equal to 0.004 for spheres, networks and felts, and 0.0004 for foams. For any specific case the values of α and β coefficients can be readily obtained from testing materials under consideration, control samples, or full-scale articles.

The buffet flow field around supercritical airfoils is dominated by self-sustained shock wave oscillations on the suction side of the wing. Theories assume that this unsteadiness is driven by an acoustic feedback loop of disturbances in the flow field downstream of the shock wave whose upstream propagating part is generated by acoustic waves. Therefore, in this study, first variations in the sound pressure level of the airfoil’s trailing-edge noise during a buffet cycle, which force the shock wave to move upstream and downstream, are detected, and then, the sensitivity of the shock wave oscillation during buffet to external acoustic forcing is analyzed. Time-resolved standard and tomographic particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are applied to investigate the transonic buffet flow field over a supercritical DRA 2303 airfoil. The freestream Mach number is $$M_{\infty } = 0.73$$ M ∞ = 0.73 , the angle of attack is $$\alpha = {3.5}^{\circ }$$ α = 3.5 ° , and the chord-based Reynolds number is $$Re_c = 1.9\times 10^6$$ R e c = 1.9 × 10 6 . The perturbed Lamb vector field, which describes the major acoustic source term of trailing-edge noise, is determined from the tomographic PIV data. Subsequently, the buffet flow field is disturbed by an artificially generated acoustic field, the acoustic intensity of which is comparable to the Lamb vector that is determined from the PIV data. The results confirm the hypothesis that buffet is driven by an acoustic feedback loop and show the shock wave oscillation to directly respond to external acoustic forcing. That is, the amplitude modulation frequency of the artificial acoustic perturbation determines the shock oscillation.;The buffet flow field around supercritical airfoils is dominated by self-sustained shock wave oscillations on the suction side of the wing. Theories assume that this unsteadiness is driven by an acoustic feedback loop of disturbances in the flow field downstream of the shock wave whose upstream propagating part is generated by acoustic waves. Therefore, in this study, first variations in the sound pressure level of the airfoil’s trailing-edge noise during a buffet cycle, which force the shock wave to move upstream and downstream, are detected, and then, the sensitivity of the shock wave oscillation during buffet to external acoustic forcing is analyzed. Time-resolved standard and tomographic particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are applied to investigate the transonic buffet flow field over a supercritical DRA 2303 airfoil. The freestream Mach number is M∞=0.73, the angle of attack is α=3.5°, and the chord-based Reynolds number is Rec=1.9×106. The perturbed Lamb vector field, which describes the major acoustic source term of trailing-edge noise, is determined from the tomographic PIV data. Subsequently, the buffet flow field is disturbed by an artificially generated acoustic field, the acoustic intensity of which is comparable to the Lamb vector that is determined from the PIV data. The results confirm the hypothesis that buffet is driven by an acoustic feedback loop and show the shock wave oscillation to directly respond to external acoustic forcing. That is, the amplitude modulation frequency of the artificial acoustic perturbation determines the shock oscillation.

The results of the numerical modeling of a flow with a pseudo-shock in an axisymmetric duct are presented. The duct included a frontal inlet with the initial funnel-shaped compression part and the cylindrical throat part as well as the subsequent expanding diffuser. To create a flow with a pseudo-shock, the duct was throttled with the use of the outlet converging insert. Numerical computations of the axisymmetric flow have been conducted on the basis of the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier?Stokes equations and with the use of the k-ω SST turbulence model. As a result of computations, such parameters of the flow were determined as the location of the beginning of the pseudo-shock, the length of its supersonic part, the velocity profiles in different cross sections of the pseudo-shock, the pressure distribution on the duct wall, the total pressure recovery factor, and others. The behavior of these parameters at the freestream Mach number М = 6 was analyzed versus the diffuser opening angle and different degree of the inlet duct throttling.;The results of the numerical modeling of a flow with a pseudo-shock in an axisymmetric duct are presented. The duct included a frontal inlet with the initial funnel-shaped compression part and the cylindrical throat part as well as the subsequent expanding diffuser. To create a flow with a pseudo-shock, the duct was throttled with the use of the outlet converging insert. Numerical computations of the axisymmetric flow have been conducted on the basis of the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier?Stokes equations and with the use of the k-ω SST turbulence model. As a result of computations, such parameters of the flow were determined as the location of the beginning of the pseudo-shock, the length of its supersonic part, the velocity profiles in different cross sections of the pseudo-shock, the pressure distribution on the duct wall, the total pressure recovery factor, and others. The behavior of these parameters at the freestream Mach number М = 6 was analyzed versus the diffuser opening angle and different degree of the inlet duct throttling.;The results of the numerical modeling of a flow with a pseudo-shock in an axisymmetric duct are presented. The duct included a frontal inlet with the initial funnel-shaped compression part and the cylindrical throat part as well as the subsequent expanding diffuser. To create a flow with a pseudo-shock, the duct was throttled with the use of the outlet converging insert. Numerical computations of the axisymmetric flow have been conducted on the basis of the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier?Stokes equations and with the use of the k-ω SST turbulence model. As a result of computations, such parameters of the flow were determined as the location of the beginning of the pseudo-shock, the length of its supersonic part, the velocity profiles in different cross sections of the pseudo-shock, the pressure distribution on the duct wall, the total pressure recovery factor, and others. The behavior of these parameters at the freestream Mach number М = 6 was analyzed versus the diffuser opening angle and different degree of the inlet duct throttling.

A tailor-made convective heat transfer test facility is constructed to study the single-phase convective heat transfer of deionized water and 30 vol% and 60 vol% aqua–ethylene glycol in a stainless steel tube of 4 mm in inner diameter and 1 m in length. The heat flux is varied between 1 and 4 kW·m?2 and for mass flux ranging from 160 to 475 kg·m?2 s?1. The experiments were predominantly conducted only for laminar flow regime. Finally, the heat transfer coefficient is recorded and compared with the conventional theories. It is observed that the presence of ethylene glycol in water decreases the heat transfer coefficient by more than 50%, due to the decreased Reynolds number and thermal conductivity of the mixture.;A tailor-made convective heat transfer test facility is constructed to study the single-phase convective heat transfer of deionized water and 30 vol% and 60 vol% aqua–ethylene glycol in a stainless steel tube of 4 mm in inner diameter and 1 m in length. The heat flux is varied between 1 and 4 kW·m?2 and for mass flux ranging from 160 to 475 kg·m?2 s?1. The experiments were predominantly conducted only for laminar flow regime. Finally, the heat transfer coefficient is recorded and compared with the conventional theories. It is observed that the presence of ethylene glycol in water decreases the heat transfer coefficient by more than 50%, due to the decreased Reynolds number and thermal conductivity of the mixture.;A tailor-made convective heat transfer test facility is constructed to study the single-phase convective heat transfer of deionized water and 30 vol% and 60 vol% aqua–ethylene glycol in a stainless steel tube of 4 mm in inner diameter and 1 m in length. The heat flux is varied between 1 and 4 kW·m?2 and for mass flux ranging from 160 to 475 kg·m?2 s?1. The experiments were predominantly conducted only for laminar flow regime. Finally, the heat transfer coefficient is recorded and compared with the conventional theories. It is observed that the presence of ethylene glycol in water decreases the heat transfer coefficient by more than 50%, due to the decreased Reynolds number and thermal conductivity of the mixture.

The control simultaneous action of a jet and near-wall energy sources on the shockwave structure of a superso-nic flow in the axisymmetric and planar ducts is studied for the purpose of creating a transonic region. The regimes with an extended transonic region are obtained.;The control simultaneous action of a jet and near-wall energy sources on the shockwave structure of a superso-nic flow in the axisymmetric and planar ducts is studied for the purpose of creating a transonic region. The regimes with an extended transonic region are obtained.;The control simultaneous action of a jet and near-wall energy sources on the shockwave structure of a superso-nic flow in the axisymmetric and planar ducts is studied for the purpose of creating a transonic region. The regimes with an extended transonic region are obtained.

A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.;A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.;A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.

This research presents a case study of applying a loop thermosyphon with a vapor chamber (LTVC) for a chilli oven (O/LTVC). The LTVC had a dimension evaporator chamber size of 200 mm × 200 mm ×75 mm (W×L×H) with a shape of eight-loops thermosyphon, the lengths of adiabatic and condenser sections were 824 mm and 800 mm, respectively. The air velocity was 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s with a air inlet operating temperature being 60, 70, and 80°C. The working fluid chosen for our study was distilled water with a filling ratio of 40% by chamber volume. The O/LTVC provided regular temperature distribution and a good thermal performance. The quality of color measurement and sensory of the chilli oven exceeded the manufacturing standard. The LPG consumption had a thrift of 0.3 $US/kg after drying of 280 kg chilli. Obviously, the O/OTCV has a good oven processing.;This research presents a case study of applying a loop thermosyphon with a vapor chamber (LTVC) for a chilli oven (O/LTVC). The LTVC had a dimension evaporator chamber size of 200 mm × 200 mm ×75 mm (W×L×H) with a shape of eight-loops thermosyphon, the lengths of adiabatic and condenser sections were 824 mm and 800 mm, respectively. The air velocity was 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s with a air inlet operating temperature being 60, 70, and 80°C. The working fluid chosen for our study was distilled water with a filling ratio of 40% by chamber volume. The O/LTVC provided regular temperature distribution and a good thermal performance. The quality of color measurement and sensory of the chilli oven exceeded the manufacturing standard. The LPG consumption had a thrift of 0.3 $US/kg after drying of 280 kg chilli. Obviously, the O/OTCV has a good oven processing.;This research presents a case study of applying a loop thermosyphon with a vapor chamber (LTVC) for a chilli oven (O/LTVC). The LTVC had a dimension evaporator chamber size of 200 mm × 200 mm ×75 mm (W×L×H) with a shape of eight-loops thermosyphon, the lengths of adiabatic and condenser sections were 824 mm and 800 mm, respectively. The air velocity was 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s with a air inlet operating temperature being 60, 70, and 80°C. The working fluid chosen for our study was distilled water with a filling ratio of 40% by chamber volume. The O/LTVC provided regular temperature distribution and a good thermal performance. The quality of color measurement and sensory of the chilli oven exceeded the manufacturing standard. The LPG consumption had a thrift of 0.3 $US/kg after drying of 280 kg chilli. Obviously, the O/OTCV has a good oven processing.