A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.;A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.;A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.

The paper describes a problem of accumulation of irradiated graphite due to operation of uranium-graphite nuclear reactors. The main noncarbon contaminants that contribute to the overall activity of graphite elements are iso-topes 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr, 36Cl, and 3H. A method was developed for processing of irradiated graphite ensuring the volu-metric decontamination of samples. The calculation results are presented for equilibrium composition of plasma-chemical reactions in systems “irradiated graphite?argon” and “irradiated graphite?helium” for a wide range of tem-peratures. The paper describes a developed mathematical model for the process of purification of a porous graphite surface treated by equilibrium low-temperature plasma. The simulation results are presented for the rate of sublimation of radioactive contaminants as a function of plasma temperature and plasma flow velocity when different plasma-forming gases are used. The extraction coefficient for the contaminant 137Cs from the outer side of graphite pores was calculated. The calculations demonstrated the advantages of using a lighter plasma forming gas, i.e., helium.;The paper describes a problem of accumulation of irradiated graphite due to operation of uranium-graphite nuclear reactors. The main noncarbon contaminants that contribute to the overall activity of graphite elements are iso-topes 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr, 36Cl, and 3H. A method was developed for processing of irradiated graphite ensuring the volu-metric decontamination of samples. The calculation results are presented for equilibrium composition of plasma-chemical reactions in systems “irradiated graphite?argon” and “irradiated graphite?helium” for a wide range of tem-peratures. The paper describes a developed mathematical model for the process of purification of a porous graphite surface treated by equilibrium low-temperature plasma. The simulation results are presented for the rate of sublimation of radioactive contaminants as a function of plasma temperature and plasma flow velocity when different plasma-forming gases are used. The extraction coefficient for the contaminant 137Cs from the outer side of graphite pores was calculated. The calculations demonstrated the advantages of using a lighter plasma forming gas, i.e., helium.;The paper describes a problem of accumulation of irradiated graphite due to operation of uranium-graphite nuclear reactors. The main noncarbon contaminants that contribute to the overall activity of graphite elements are iso-topes 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr, 36Cl, and 3H. A method was developed for processing of irradiated graphite ensuring the volu-metric decontamination of samples. The calculation results are presented for equilibrium composition of plasma-chemical reactions in systems “irradiated graphite?argon” and “irradiated graphite?helium” for a wide range of tem-peratures. The paper describes a developed mathematical model for the process of purification of a porous graphite surface treated by equilibrium low-temperature plasma. The simulation results are presented for the rate of sublimation of radioactive contaminants as a function of plasma temperature and plasma flow velocity when different plasma-forming gases are used. The extraction coefficient for the contaminant 137Cs from the outer side of graphite pores was calculated. The calculations demonstrated the advantages of using a lighter plasma forming gas, i.e., helium.

This article investigates the thermal performance of convective-radiative annular fins with a step reduction in local cross section (SRC). The thermal conductivity of the fin’s material is assumed to be a linear function of temperature, and heat transfer coefficient is assumed to be a power-law function of surface temperature. Moreover, nonzero convection and radiation sink temperatures are included in the mathematical model of the energy equation. The well-known differential transformation method (DTM) is used to derive the analytical solution. An exact analytical solution for a special case is derived to prove the validity of the obtained results from the DTM. The model provided here is a more realistic representation of SRC annular fins in actual engineering practices. Effects of many parameters such as conduction-convection parameters, conduction-radiation parameter and sink temperature, and also some parameters which deal with step fins such as thickness parameter and dimensionless parameter describing the position of junction in the fin on the temperature distribution of both thin and thick sections of the fin are investigated. It is believed that the obtained results will facilitate the design and performance evaluation of SRC annular fins.;This article investigates the thermal performance of convective-radiative annular fins with a step reduction in local cross section (SRC). The thermal conductivity of the fin’s material is assumed to be a linear function of temperature, and heat transfer coefficient is assumed to be a power-law function of surface temperature. Moreover, nonzero convection and radiation sink temperatures are included in the mathematical model of the energy equation. The well-known differential transformation method (DTM) is used to derive the analytical solution. An exact analytical solution for a special case is derived to prove the validity of the obtained results from the DTM. The model provided here is a more realistic representation of SRC annular fins in actual engineering practices. Effects of many parameters such as conduction-convection parameters, conduction-radiation parameter and sink temperature, and also some parameters which deal with step fins such as thickness parameter and dimensionless parameter describing the position of junction in the fin on the temperature distribution of both thin and thick sections of the fin are investigated. It is believed that the obtained results will facilitate the design and performance evaluation of SRC annular fins.;This article investigates the thermal performance of convective-radiative annular fins with a step reduction in local cross section (SRC). The thermal conductivity of the fin’s material is assumed to be a linear function of temperature, and heat transfer coefficient is assumed to be a power-law function of surface temperature. Moreover, nonzero convection and radiation sink temperatures are included in the mathematical model of the energy equation. The well-known differential transformation method (DTM) is used to derive the analytical solution. An exact analytical solution for a special case is derived to prove the validity of the obtained results from the DTM. The model provided here is a more realistic representation of SRC annular fins in actual engineering practices. Effects of many parameters such as conduction-convection parameters, conduction-radiation parameter and sink temperature, and also some parameters which deal with step fins such as thickness parameter and dimensionless parameter describing the position of junction in the fin on the temperature distribution of both thin and thick sections of the fin are investigated. It is believed that the obtained results will facilitate the design and performance evaluation of SRC annular fins.

The paper considers the process of injection of hydrate-forming gas (methane) into a snowy agglomerate (ini-tially saturated with methane). The self-similar problem statement demonstrates that if the warm gas (Te > 0 °C) is injected under a high pressure (pe ≥ p*, where the critical values are found from the initial temperature T0, pressure p0, volumetric snow saturation Si0, and permeability of snow) into the filtration zone with phase transition, this produces four characteristic zones: the nearest zone with all snow transformed into hydrate, therefore, the aggregate filled only with gas and hydrate, the two intermediate zones where gas, snow or water and hydrate are in phase equilibrium state, and the distant zone filled only with gas and snow. The obtained analytical and numerical solutions give an analysis of the influence of key input parameters like initial state of the aggregate, gas injection rate, and its temperature, on the structure and the length of four filtration zones.;The paper considers the process of injection of hydrate-forming gas (methane) into a snowy agglomerate (ini-tially saturated with methane). The self-similar problem statement demonstrates that if the warm gas (T e > 0 °C) is injected under a high pressure (p e ≥ p *, where the critical values are found from the initial temperature T 0, pressure p 0, volumetric snow saturation S i0, and permeability of snow) into the filtration zone with phase transition, this produces four characteristic zones: the nearest zone with all snow transformed into hydrate, therefore, the aggregate filled only with gas and hydrate, the two intermediate zones where gas, snow or water and hydrate are in phase equilibrium state, and the distant zone filled only with gas and snow. The obtained analytical and numerical solutions give an analysis of the influence of key input parameters like initial state of the aggregate, gas injection rate, and its temperature, on the structure and the length of four filtration zones.;The paper considers the process of injection of hydrate-forming gas (methane) into a snowy agglomerate (ini-tially saturated with methane). The self-similar problem statement demonstrates that if the warm gas (Te > 0 °C) is injected under a high pressure (pe ≥ p*, where the critical values are found from the initial temperature T0, pressure p0, volumetric snow saturation Si0, and permeability of snow) into the filtration zone with phase transition, this produces four characteristic zones: the nearest zone with all snow transformed into hydrate, therefore, the aggregate filled only with gas and hydrate, the two intermediate zones where gas, snow or water and hydrate are in phase equilibrium state, and the distant zone filled only with gas and snow. The obtained analytical and numerical solutions give an analysis of the influence of key input parameters like initial state of the aggregate, gas injection rate, and its temperature, on the structure and the length of four filtration zones.

In this paper, we propose a novel optical flow formulation for estimating two-dimensional velocity fields from an image sequence depicting the evolution of a passive scalar transported by a fluid flow. This motion estimator relies on a stochastic representation of the flow allowing to incorporate naturally a notion of uncertainty in the flow measurement. In this context, the Eulerian fluid flow velocity field is decomposed into two components: a large-scale motion field and a small-scale uncertainty component. We define the small-scale component as a random field. Subsequently, the data term of the optical flow formulation is based on a stochastic transport equation, derived from the formalism under location uncertainty proposed in Mémin (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 108(2):119–146, 2014) and Resseguier et al. (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 111(3):149–176, 2017a). In addition, a specific regularization term built from the assumption of constant kinetic energy involves the very same diffusion tensor as the one appearing in the data transport term. Opposite to the classical motion estimators, this enables us to devise an optical flow method dedicated to fluid flows in which the regularization parameter has now a clear physical interpretation and can be easily estimated. Experimental evaluations are presented on both synthetic and real world image sequences. Results and comparisons indicate very good performance of the proposed formulation for turbulent flow motion estimation.;In this paper, we propose a novel optical flow formulation for estimating two-dimensional velocity fields from an image sequence depicting the evolution of a passive scalar transported by a fluid flow. This motion estimator relies on a stochastic representation of the flow allowing to incorporate naturally a notion of uncertainty in the flow measurement. In this context, the Eulerian fluid flow velocity field is decomposed into two components: a large-scale motion field and a small-scale uncertainty component. We define the small-scale component as a random field. Subsequently, the data term of the optical flow formulation is based on a stochastic transport equation, derived from the formalism under location uncertainty proposed in Mémin (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 108(2):119–146, 2014) and Resseguier et al. (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 111(3):149–176, 2017a). In addition, a specific regularization term built from the assumption of constant kinetic energy involves the very same diffusion tensor as the one appearing in the data transport term. Opposite to the classical motion estimators, this enables us to devise an optical flow method dedicated to fluid flows in which the regularization parameter has now a clear physical interpretation and can be easily estimated. Experimental evaluations are presented on both synthetic and real world image sequences. Results and comparisons indicate very good performance of the proposed formulation for turbulent flow motion estimation.

The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.;The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.;The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.

The paper presents the results of experimental pyroelectric studies of PZT piezoceramics by the methods of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Pyroresponses resulted from action of modulated laser radiation on a pyroelement. It is shown that using altering the temperature of even a single pyroelement by 8.5 K enables production of a maximum electricenergy output power of about 16 μW on a 10 MΩ resistor at an open-circuit voltage of ～ 90 V and a short-circuit current of ～ 0.18 μA. The presented research contributes to the development of pyrogenerators for conversion of thermal energy using commercially available piezo-ceramics.;The paper presents the results of experimental pyroelectric studies of PZT piezoceramics by the methods of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Pyroresponses resulted from action of modulated laser radiation on a pyroelement. It is shown that using altering the temperature of even a single pyroelement by 8.5 K enables production of a maximum electricenergy output power of about 16 μW on a 10 MΩ resistor at an open-circuit voltage of ～ 90 V and a short-circuit current of ～ 0.18 μA. The presented research contributes to the development of pyrogenerators for conversion of thermal energy using commercially available piezo-ceramics.;The paper presents the results of experimental pyroelectric studies of PZT piezoceramics by the methods of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Pyroresponses resulted from action of modulated laser radiation on a pyroelement. It is shown that using altering the temperature of even a single pyroelement by 8.5 K enables production of a maximum electricenergy output power of about 16 μW on a 10 MΩ resistor at an open-circuit voltage of ～ 90 V and a short-circuit current of ～ 0.18 μA. The presented research contributes to the development of pyrogenerators for conversion of thermal energy using commercially available piezo-ceramics.

A mathematical model for calculating the distribution of temperature and the dynamics of the phase transfor-mations of water in multilayer systems on permafrost-zone surface is proposed. The model allows one to perform calculations in the annual cycle, taking into account the distribution of temperature on the surface in warm and cold seasons. A system involving four layers, a snow or land cover, a top layer of soil, a layer of thermal-insulation materi-al, and a mineral soil, is analyzed. The calculations by the model allow one to choose the optimal thickness and com-position of the layers which would ensure the stability of structures built on the permafrost-zone surface.;A mathematical model for calculating the distribution of temperature and the dynamics of the phase transfor-mations of water in multilayer systems on permafrost-zone surface is proposed. The model allows one to perform calculations in the annual cycle, taking into account the distribution of temperature on the surface in warm and cold seasons. A system involving four layers, a snow or land cover, a top layer of soil, a layer of thermal-insulation materi-al, and a mineral soil, is analyzed. The calculations by the model allow one to choose the optimal thickness and com-position of the layers which would ensure the stability of structures built on the permafrost-zone surface.;A mathematical model for calculating the distribution of temperature and the dynamics of the phase transfor-mations of water in multilayer systems on permafrost-zone surface is proposed. The model allows one to perform calculations in the annual cycle, taking into account the distribution of temperature on the surface in warm and cold seasons. A system involving four layers, a snow or land cover, a top layer of soil, a layer of thermal-insulation materi-al, and a mineral soil, is analyzed. The calculations by the model allow one to choose the optimal thickness and com-position of the layers which would ensure the stability of structures built on the permafrost-zone surface.

EXPERIMENTS IN FLUIDS
ISSN：0723-4864 volume：59 Issue：1 page：1-19
Burns, Ross A
;
Cadell, Seth R
;
Woods, Brian G
;
Bardet, Philippe M
;
André, Matthieu A

A molecular tagging velocity (MTV) technique is developed to non-intrusively measure velocity in an integral effect test (IET) facility simulating a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor in accident scenarios. In these scenarios, the velocities are expected to be low, on the order of 1 m/s or less, which forces special requirements on the MTV tracer selection. Nitrous oxide $$({\rm N}_2{\rm O})$$ ( N 2 O ) is identified as a suitable seed gas to generate NO tracers capable of probing the flow over a large range of pressure, temperature, and flow velocity. The performance of $${\rm N}_2{\rm O}$$ N 2 O -MTV is assessed in the laboratory at temperature and pressure ranging from 295 to 781 K and 1 to 3 atm. MTV signal improves with a temperature increase, but decreases with a pressure increase. Velocity precision down to 0.004 m/s is achieved with a probe time of 40 ms at ambient pressure and temperature. Measurement precision is limited by tracer diffusion, and absorption of the tag laser beam by the seed gas. Processing by cross-correlation of single-shot images with high signal-to-noise ratio reference images improves the precision by about 10% compared to traditional single-shot image correlations. The instrument is then deployed to the IET facility. Challenges associated with heat, vibrations, safety, beam delivery, and imaging are addressed in order to successfully operate this sensitive instrument in-situ. Data are presented for an isothermal depressurized conduction cooldown. Velocity profiles from MTV reveal a complex flow transient driven by buoyancy, diffusion, and instability taking place over short $$(<1\, {\rm s})$$ ( < 1 s ) and long ( $$>30$$ > 30 min) time scales at sub-meter per second speed. The precision of the in-situ results is estimated at 0.027, 0.0095, and 0.006 m/s for a probe time of 5, 15, and 35 ms, respectively.

This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.;This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.;This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.