The buffet flow field around supercritical airfoils is dominated by self-sustained shock wave oscillations on the suction side of the wing. Theories assume that this unsteadiness is driven by an acoustic feedback loop of disturbances in the flow field downstream of the shock wave whose upstream propagating part is generated by acoustic waves. Therefore, in this study, first variations in the sound pressure level of the airfoil’s trailing-edge noise during a buffet cycle, which force the shock wave to move upstream and downstream, are detected, and then, the sensitivity of the shock wave oscillation during buffet to external acoustic forcing is analyzed. Time-resolved standard and tomographic particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are applied to investigate the transonic buffet flow field over a supercritical DRA 2303 airfoil. The freestream Mach number is $$M_{\infty } = 0.73$$ M ∞ = 0.73 , the angle of attack is $$\alpha = {3.5}^{\circ }$$ α = 3.5 ° , and the chord-based Reynolds number is $$Re_c = 1.9\times 10^6$$ R e c = 1.9 × 10 6 . The perturbed Lamb vector field, which describes the major acoustic source term of trailing-edge noise, is determined from the tomographic PIV data. Subsequently, the buffet flow field is disturbed by an artificially generated acoustic field, the acoustic intensity of which is comparable to the Lamb vector that is determined from the PIV data. The results confirm the hypothesis that buffet is driven by an acoustic feedback loop and show the shock wave oscillation to directly respond to external acoustic forcing. That is, the amplitude modulation frequency of the artificial acoustic perturbation determines the shock oscillation.;The buffet flow field around supercritical airfoils is dominated by self-sustained shock wave oscillations on the suction side of the wing. Theories assume that this unsteadiness is driven by an acoustic feedback loop of disturbances in the flow field downstream of the shock wave whose upstream propagating part is generated by acoustic waves. Therefore, in this study, first variations in the sound pressure level of the airfoil’s trailing-edge noise during a buffet cycle, which force the shock wave to move upstream and downstream, are detected, and then, the sensitivity of the shock wave oscillation during buffet to external acoustic forcing is analyzed. Time-resolved standard and tomographic particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are applied to investigate the transonic buffet flow field over a supercritical DRA 2303 airfoil. The freestream Mach number is M∞=0.73, the angle of attack is α=3.5°, and the chord-based Reynolds number is Rec=1.9×106. The perturbed Lamb vector field, which describes the major acoustic source term of trailing-edge noise, is determined from the tomographic PIV data. Subsequently, the buffet flow field is disturbed by an artificially generated acoustic field, the acoustic intensity of which is comparable to the Lamb vector that is determined from the PIV data. The results confirm the hypothesis that buffet is driven by an acoustic feedback loop and show the shock wave oscillation to directly respond to external acoustic forcing. That is, the amplitude modulation frequency of the artificial acoustic perturbation determines the shock oscillation.

The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.;The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.;The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.

We report velocity measurements in a vertical turbulent convection flow cell that is filled with the eutectic liquid metal alloy gallium–indium–tin by the use of local Lorentz force velocimetry (LLFV) and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. We demonstrate the applicability of LLFV for a thermal convection flow and reproduce a linear dependence of the measured force in the range of micronewtons on the local flow velocity magnitude. Furthermore, the presented experiment is used to explore scaling laws of the global turbulent transport of heat and momentum in this low-Prandtl-number convection flow. Our results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions and recent direct numerical simulations.;We report velocity measurements in a vertical turbulent convection flow cell that is filled with the eutectic liquid metal alloy gallium–indium–tin by the use of local Lorentz force velocimetry (LLFV) and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. We demonstrate the applicability of LLFV for a thermal convection flow and reproduce a linear dependence of the measured force in the range of micronewtons on the local flow velocity magnitude. Furthermore, the presented experiment is used to explore scaling laws of the global turbulent transport of heat and momentum in this low-Prandtl-number convection flow. Our results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions and recent direct numerical simulations.

In this paper, we propose a novel optical flow formulation for estimating two-dimensional velocity fields from an image sequence depicting the evolution of a passive scalar transported by a fluid flow. This motion estimator relies on a stochastic representation of the flow allowing to incorporate naturally a notion of uncertainty in the flow measurement. In this context, the Eulerian fluid flow velocity field is decomposed into two components: a large-scale motion field and a small-scale uncertainty component. We define the small-scale component as a random field. Subsequently, the data term of the optical flow formulation is based on a stochastic transport equation, derived from the formalism under location uncertainty proposed in Mémin (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 108(2):119–146, 2014) and Resseguier et al. (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 111(3):149–176, 2017a). In addition, a specific regularization term built from the assumption of constant kinetic energy involves the very same diffusion tensor as the one appearing in the data transport term. Opposite to the classical motion estimators, this enables us to devise an optical flow method dedicated to fluid flows in which the regularization parameter has now a clear physical interpretation and can be easily estimated. Experimental evaluations are presented on both synthetic and real world image sequences. Results and comparisons indicate very good performance of the proposed formulation for turbulent flow motion estimation.;In this paper, we propose a novel optical flow formulation for estimating two-dimensional velocity fields from an image sequence depicting the evolution of a passive scalar transported by a fluid flow. This motion estimator relies on a stochastic representation of the flow allowing to incorporate naturally a notion of uncertainty in the flow measurement. In this context, the Eulerian fluid flow velocity field is decomposed into two components: a large-scale motion field and a small-scale uncertainty component. We define the small-scale component as a random field. Subsequently, the data term of the optical flow formulation is based on a stochastic transport equation, derived from the formalism under location uncertainty proposed in Mémin (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 108(2):119–146, 2014) and Resseguier et al. (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 111(3):149–176, 2017a). In addition, a specific regularization term built from the assumption of constant kinetic energy involves the very same diffusion tensor as the one appearing in the data transport term. Opposite to the classical motion estimators, this enables us to devise an optical flow method dedicated to fluid flows in which the regularization parameter has now a clear physical interpretation and can be easily estimated. Experimental evaluations are presented on both synthetic and real world image sequences. Results and comparisons indicate very good performance of the proposed formulation for turbulent flow motion estimation.

This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.;This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.;This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.

A theoretical analysis of the effect of velocity radial nonuniformity on nonstationary gas-solid adsorption processes in the column apparatuses is presented. The average concentration model, where the radial velocity component in the gas phase is equal to zero (in cases of a constant velocity radial nonuniformity along the column height), is used in the cases of an axial modification of the radial nonuniformity of the axial velocity components in the gas phase. The use of experimental data, for average concentrations in the gas phase at the column end, for a concrete process (physical or chemical adsorption), permits obtaining the gas phase model parameters related with the radial nonuniformity of the velocity. These parameter values allow using the average concentration model for modeling different adsorption processes.;A theoretical analysis of the effect of velocity radial nonuniformity on nonstationary gas-solid adsorption processes in the column apparatuses is presented. The average concentration model, where the radial velocity component in the gas phase is equal to zero (in cases of a constant velocity radial nonuniformity along the column height), is used in the cases of an axial modification of the radial nonuniformity of the axial velocity components in the gas phase. The use of experimental data, for average concentrations in the gas phase at the column end, for a concrete process (physical or chemical adsorption), permits obtaining the gas phase model parameters related with the radial nonuniformity of the velocity. These parameter values allow using the average concentration model for modeling different adsorption processes.;A theoretical analysis of the effect of velocity radial nonuniformity on nonstationary gas-solid adsorption processes in the column apparatuses is presented. The average concentration model, where the radial velocity component in the gas phase is equal to zero (in cases of a constant velocity radial nonuniformity along the column height), is used in the cases of an axial modification of the radial nonuniformity of the axial velocity components in the gas phase. The use of experimental data, for average concentrations in the gas phase at the column end, for a concrete process (physical or chemical adsorption), permits obtaining the gas phase model parameters related with the radial nonuniformity of the velocity. These parameter values allow using the average concentration model for modeling different adsorption processes.

This research presents a case study of applying a loop thermosyphon with a vapor chamber (LTVC) for a chilli oven (O/LTVC). The LTVC had a dimension evaporator chamber size of 200 mm × 200 mm ×75 mm (W×L×H) with a shape of eight-loops thermosyphon, the lengths of adiabatic and condenser sections were 824 mm and 800 mm, respectively. The air velocity was 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s with a air inlet operating temperature being 60, 70, and 80°C. The working fluid chosen for our study was distilled water with a filling ratio of 40% by chamber volume. The O/LTVC provided regular temperature distribution and a good thermal performance. The quality of color measurement and sensory of the chilli oven exceeded the manufacturing standard. The LPG consumption had a thrift of 0.3 $US/kg after drying of 280 kg chilli. Obviously, the O/OTCV has a good oven processing.;This research presents a case study of applying a loop thermosyphon with a vapor chamber (LTVC) for a chilli oven (O/LTVC). The LTVC had a dimension evaporator chamber size of 200 mm × 200 mm ×75 mm (W×L×H) with a shape of eight-loops thermosyphon, the lengths of adiabatic and condenser sections were 824 mm and 800 mm, respectively. The air velocity was 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s with a air inlet operating temperature being 60, 70, and 80°C. The working fluid chosen for our study was distilled water with a filling ratio of 40% by chamber volume. The O/LTVC provided regular temperature distribution and a good thermal performance. The quality of color measurement and sensory of the chilli oven exceeded the manufacturing standard. The LPG consumption had a thrift of 0.3 $US/kg after drying of 280 kg chilli. Obviously, the O/OTCV has a good oven processing.;This research presents a case study of applying a loop thermosyphon with a vapor chamber (LTVC) for a chilli oven (O/LTVC). The LTVC had a dimension evaporator chamber size of 200 mm × 200 mm ×75 mm (W×L×H) with a shape of eight-loops thermosyphon, the lengths of adiabatic and condenser sections were 824 mm and 800 mm, respectively. The air velocity was 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s with a air inlet operating temperature being 60, 70, and 80°C. The working fluid chosen for our study was distilled water with a filling ratio of 40% by chamber volume. The O/LTVC provided regular temperature distribution and a good thermal performance. The quality of color measurement and sensory of the chilli oven exceeded the manufacturing standard. The LPG consumption had a thrift of 0.3 $US/kg after drying of 280 kg chilli. Obviously, the O/OTCV has a good oven processing.

The paper presents the results of experimental pyroelectric studies of PZT piezoceramics by the methods of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Pyroresponses resulted from action of modulated laser radiation on a pyroelement. It is shown that using altering the temperature of even a single pyroelement by 8.5 K enables production of a maximum electricenergy output power of about 16 μW on a 10 MΩ resistor at an open-circuit voltage of ～ 90 V and a short-circuit current of ～ 0.18 μA. The presented research contributes to the development of pyrogenerators for conversion of thermal energy using commercially available piezo-ceramics.;The paper presents the results of experimental pyroelectric studies of PZT piezoceramics by the methods of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Pyroresponses resulted from action of modulated laser radiation on a pyroelement. It is shown that using altering the temperature of even a single pyroelement by 8.5 K enables production of a maximum electricenergy output power of about 16 μW on a 10 MΩ resistor at an open-circuit voltage of ～ 90 V and a short-circuit current of ～ 0.18 μA. The presented research contributes to the development of pyrogenerators for conversion of thermal energy using commercially available piezo-ceramics.;The paper presents the results of experimental pyroelectric studies of PZT piezoceramics by the methods of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Pyroresponses resulted from action of modulated laser radiation on a pyroelement. It is shown that using altering the temperature of even a single pyroelement by 8.5 K enables production of a maximum electricenergy output power of about 16 μW on a 10 MΩ resistor at an open-circuit voltage of ～ 90 V and a short-circuit current of ～ 0.18 μA. The presented research contributes to the development of pyrogenerators for conversion of thermal energy using commercially available piezo-ceramics.

The expedience of using the ratio of inertial β and viscous α hydraulic coefficients of a fluid flow in porous structures as the characteristic linear scale, when generalizing the experimental data on internal heat transfer in porous media, is shown. It is demonstrated that the correlation Nu = A · Pe, with both criteria based on β/α ratio, most efficiently describes the experimental data for a wide set of ordered and disordered porous structures, including sintered spheres, network materials, sintered felt and cellular foams of high porosity. The coefficient A depends on porosity and is equal to 0.004 for spheres, networks and felts, and 0.0004 for foams. For any specific case the values of α and β coefficients can be readily obtained from testing materials under consideration, control samples, or full-scale articles.;The expedience of using the ratio of inertial β and viscous α hydraulic coefficients of a fluid flow in porous structures as the characteristic linear scale, when generalizing the experimental data on internal heat transfer in porous media, is shown. It is demonstrated that the correlation Nu = A · Pe, with both criteria based on β/α ratio, most efficiently describes the experimental data for a wide set of ordered and disordered porous structures, including sintered spheres, network materials, sintered felt and cellular foams of high porosity. The coefficient A depends on porosity and is equal to 0.004 for spheres, networks and felts, and 0.0004 for foams. For any specific case the values of α and β coefficients can be readily obtained from testing materials under consideration, control samples, or full-scale articles.;The expedience of using the ratio of inertial β and viscous α hydraulic coefficients of a fluid flow in porous structures as the characteristic linear scale, when generalizing the experimental data on internal heat transfer in porous media, is shown. It is demonstrated that the correlation Nu = A · Pe, with both criteria based on β/α ratio, most efficiently describes the experimental data for a wide set of ordered and disordered porous structures, including sintered spheres, network materials, sintered felt and cellular foams of high porosity. The coefficient A depends on porosity and is equal to 0.004 for spheres, networks and felts, and 0.0004 for foams. For any specific case the values of α and β coefficients can be readily obtained from testing materials under consideration, control samples, or full-scale articles.

Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.;Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.;Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.